Spatial analysis of Zika virus microcephaly cases in a Brazilian municipality

Keywords: Spatial Analysis; Microcephaly; Zika Virus Infection; Social Vulnerability; Child Health.

Abstract

Objective: to analyze the spatial distribution of microcephaly cases by Zika virus in a Brazilian municipality. Methods: ecological study that analyzed 53 confirmed cases of microcephaly by Zika virus, reported between 2015 and 2016, extracted from the Registry of Public Health Events - Microcephaly. Incidence rates of the disease in neighborhoods of the municipality, Global and Local Moran Index and Kernel dispersion method were calculated. Results: common areas with high Zika microcephaly incidence rates were identified. The value of Moran’s I demonstrated the presence of clusters, with p=0.001, I=0.3159 in 2015 and I=0.2158 in 2016. According to the Kernel map, there was concentration of cases in Regional Executive Secretariats IV and VI. Most of the cases are within or near precarious settlements. Conclusion: the cases did not occur randomly and reinforce their relationship with the living conditions of the population. Contributions to practice: it is expected that this study can contribute to reflect on public policies and surveillance actions to reduce Zika transmission, recognizing the territories of higher risk for the disease. In addition, to expand discussions between managers and health professionals to qualify notification, care, and monitoring of children with microcephaly by Zika.


References

Read JS, Velasquez BT, Lorenzi O, Sanchez AR, Torres ST, Rivera LV, et al. Symptomatic Zika Virus infection in infants, children, and adolescents living in Puerto Rico. JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(7):686-93. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0870

Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR. Zika virus and birth defects: reviewing the evidence for causality. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(20):1981-7. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1056/nejmsr1604338

World Health Organization (WHO). Birth defects surveillance: a manual for programme managers [Internet]. 2018 [cited Jan 5, 2022]. Available from: http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/110223

Ministério da Saúde (BR). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Protocolo de atenção à saúde e resposta à ocorrência de microcefalia relacionada à infecção pelo vírus Zika [Internet]. 2016 [cited Jan 5, 2022]. Available from: https://www20.anvisa.gov.br/segurancadopaciente/index.php/publicacoes/item/protocolo-de-atencao-a-saude-e-resposta-a-ocorrencia-de-microcefalia-relacionada-a-infeccao-pelo-virus-zika

Ministério da Saúde (BR). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Departamento de Vigilância das Doenças Transmissíveis. Protocolo de vigilância e resposta à ocorrência de microcefalia e/ou alterações do sistema nervoso central (SNC) [Internet]. 2015 [cited Jan 5, 2022]. Available from: https://saude.rs.gov.br/upload/arquivos/201702/22112109-protocolo-de-vigilancia-e-resposta-a-ocorrencia-de-microcefalia-relacionada-a-infeccao-pelo-virus-zika.pdf

Ministério da Saúde (BR). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Situação epidemiológica da síndrome congênita associada à infecção pelo vírus Zika, 2015 a 2020. Bol Epidemiol [Internet]. 2020 [cited Jan 5, 2022]. Available from: https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br/media/pdf/2021/fevereiro/11/boletim_epidemiologico_svs_4.pdf

Ministério da Saúde (BR). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Síndrome congênita associada à infecção pelo vírus Zika: situação epidemiológica, ações desenvolvidas e desafios, 2015 a 2019. Bol Epidemiol [Internet]. 2019 [cited Jan 5, 2022]. Available from: http://plataforma.saude.gov.br/anomalias-congenitas/boletim-epidemiologico-SVS-especial-2019.pdf

Lowe R, Barcellos C, Brasil P, Cruz OG, Honório NA, Kuper H, et al. The Zika virus epidemic in Brazil: from discovery to future implications. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

;15:E96. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010096

Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do Estado de Ceará. Coordenadoria de Vigilância em Saúde - Célula de Vigilância Epidemiológica. Informe Semanal Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika. Cenário epidemiológico no Município de Fortaleza 2021 [Internet]. 2021 [cited Jan 18, 2022]. Available from: https://www.cmfor.ce.gov.br/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/Informe-semanal-ARBOVIROSES-39%C2%AA_2021-SMS-Fortaleza-CE.pdf

Human Rights Watch. Neglected and unprotected: the impact of the Zika outbreak on women and girls in Northeastern Brazil [Internet]. 2017 [cited Jan 18, 2022]. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/report/2017/07/13/neglected-and-unprotected/impact-zika-outbreak-women-and-girls-northeastern

Garbin CAS, Teruel GP, Saliba TA, Moimaz SAS, Garbin AJI. Knowledge and attitude of women with high-risk pregnancy about the Zika virus transmission. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva. 2021;26(1):233-40.doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232020261.25752018

Almeida E. Econometria espacial aplicada. São Paulo: Editora Alínea; 2012.

Anselin L. Local Indicators of Spatial Association – LISA. Geogr Anal. 1995;27(2):93-115. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1995.tb00338.x

Prefeitura de Fortaleza. Fortaleza em mapas. Mapas georreferenciados Fortaleza em bairros [Internet]. 2019 [cited Jan 5, 2022]. Available from: https://mapas.fortaleza.ce.gov.br/

Brady OJ, Osgood-Zimmerman A, Kassebaum NJ, Ray SE, de Araújo VEM, et al. The association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil 2015–2017: an observational analysis of over 4 million births. PLoS Med. 2019; 16(3):e1002755. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002755

Dias FM, Berger SMD, Lovisi GM. Strong women and special mothers? Reflections on gender, care and motherhood in the context of post-zika epidemic in Brazil. Physis. 2020;30(4):e300408. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-73312020300408

Duarte G, Miranda AE, Bermúdez XPD, Saraceni V, Espinosa FEM. Brazilian protocol for sexually transmitted infections 2020: Zika virus infection. Epidemiol Serv Saúde. 2021;30(spe1):e2020609. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-4974202100017.esp1

Secretaria Municipal de Desenvolvimento Econômico de Fortaleza. Desenvolvimento humano, por bairro, em Fortaleza [Internet]. 2014 [cited Dec 1, 2021]. Available from: http://salasituacional.fortaleza.ce.gov.br:8081/acervo/documentById?id=22ef6ea5-8cd2-4f96-ad3c-8e0fd2c39c98

Batista LL, Andrade NM, Lessa AP, Souza LE, Costa NM, Pessoa AL, et al. Condições de vida e acesso às políticas sociais das famílias de crianças com Síndrome Congênita pelo vírus Zika atendidas em Fortaleza, Ceará, em dezembro de 2016. Rev Med UFC. 2020;60(2):5-10. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.20513/2447-6595.2020v60n2p5-10

Bulhões CSG, Silva JB, Moraes MN, Reichert APS, Dias MD, Almeida AM. Psychic repercussions in mothers of children with congenital Zika virus syndrome. Esc Anna Nery. 2020;24(2):e20190230. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2177-9465-ean-2019-0230

Mocelin HJS, Catão RC, Freitas PSS, Prado TN, Bertolde AI, Castro MC, et al. Analysis of the spatial distribution of cases of Zika vírus infection and congenital Zika virus syndrome in a state in the southeastern region of Brazil: sociodemographic factors and implications for public health. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2020;148(Suppl. 2):61-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13049

World Health Organization (WHO). Screening, assessment and management of neonates and infants with complications associated with Zika virus exposure in utero [Internet]. 2016 [cited Jan 5, 2022]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204475/1/WHO_ZIKV_MOC_16.3_eng.pdf?ua=1

Gama GL, Silva BM, Silva MB, Ferreira RVB, Tavares JS, Melo A. Mental health and burden in mothers of children with congenital Zika syndrome during COVID-19 pandemic. Rev Bras Saúde Mater Infant. 2021;21(Supl. 2):481-90. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9304202100S200009

Published
2022-06-03
How to Cite
Santos, D. A. de S., Cardoso, M. V. L. M. L., Mayorga, F. D. de O., Costa, F. E. da S., Rodrigues, N. N., & Melo, G. M. de. (2022). Spatial analysis of Zika virus microcephaly cases in a Brazilian municipality. Rev Rene, 23, e72440. https://doi.org/10.15253/2175-6783.20222372440
Section
Research Article